Basic National Conditions
Located in the hinterland of Central Asia, Tajikistan has a total land area of about 14 million hectares and agricultural land of 4.26 million hectares, accounting for 33.9 percent of the total land area. Among them, the cultivated land area is 860,000 hectares, accounting for 5.3% of agricultural land, of which the irrigable area is 710,000 hectares, and the per capita cultivated area is about 0.1 hectares. The grassland area accounts for about 27.7% of agricultural land. The natural pasture area is large, accounting for about 48.3% of agricultural land. Located in the upper reaches of the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers, Tajikistan is relatively rich in water resources compared with other counties in Central Aisa, with an average annual precipitation of 989 millimetres, but its water resources are underutilized.
Tajikistan is dominated by agriculture and animal husbandry, which occupies an important position in the national economy. The Tajikistan government has actively formulated a series of policies and measures to promote the development of agriculture so that the added value of agriculture has been improved. However, Tajikistan’s agriculture is still in a slow recovery phase and has always been a food-deficit poor country and is listed as a relief country by the United Nations. As of 2016, Kyrgyzstan’s agricultural output value was approximately US$1.727 billion, accounting for approximately 21.93% of its GDP. Tajikistan’s animal husbandry is dominated by mountain grazing, with natural pastures accounting for approximately 82% of agricultural land. The main breeds are cattle, sheep and pigs, and also include some poultry and silkworms. In recent years, the number of beef cattle, dairy cows, sheep and goats in Tajikistan has shown an increasing trend. In terms of animal husbandry, privatization reforms have boosted the output of livestock products, and the total value of animal husbandry in 2016 was approximately $355 million. However, Tajikistan suffers from a shortage of technologies for livestock breeding and the control of animal and plant diseases, which limits the development of the livestock sector.
The agricultural technology in Tajikistan is underdevelopment, the country’s investment in agricultural technology is far from enough, resulting in insufficient agricultural output. Agricultural machinery constitutes only 3% of the agricultural real estate assets. At the same time, due to lack of funds, Tajikistan uses less fertilizers and pesticides in agricultural production. For a long time, Tajikistan's agricultural product varieties have insufficient research and development capabilities, traditional varieties have gradually lost their original good traits, crop quality has deteriorated, and resistance has weakened. Crop varieties are degraded, and high-quality crop varieties and livestock varieties are lacking. There is a serious shortage of scientific research funds, and agricultural science and technology have experienced an unprecedented shrinkage. First of all, the number of scientific research personnel has dropped sharply, and the potential for science and technology has fallen sharply, resulting in shortages of agricultural technologies in Tajikistan such as crop and livestock breeding, efficient cultivation, demonstration planting, animal and plant disease prevention and control, agricultural machinery production, and maintenance. And China has made certain progress in these areas after years of exploration. In addition, as China is a close neighbor of Tajikistan, the natural environment and agricultural production conditions in Xinjiang of China are similar to Tajikistan, which makes it possible for China’s agricultural technology and production materials to be directly transplanted and promoted in Tajikistan. China and Tajikistan have a promising future in the cooperation of agricultural technology area. Secondly, the shortage of funds has severely restricted the improvement of agricultural science and technology. The funding sources of scientific research institutions mainly rely on government funding, especially for basic research departments, government funding is the only source. But Tajikistan is under financial strain and is unable to provide the funds needed for research and development.
The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 forced Tajikistan to formulate a series of agricultural policies to help its agricultural development, the main agricultural policy is the transformation of the land management rights. In 1992, Tajikistan transferred most of the hillside land to private-sector farmers in accordance with the Land Reform Law. On October 9, 1995, the President of Tajikistan signed the Order on Dedicating 50,000 Ha of Land to Citizens to Develop Private Sideline Economy. On December 1, 1997, the President issued a similar order, deciding to allocate 25,000 hectares of land to citizens to develop private sideline economy. Until 2007, the land management construction of Tajikistan had changed hugely. In 1991, state-owned farm accounts for 8% of agricultural land, but in 2007, private management land accounts for 70% of total agricultural land. Moreover, the trend of privatizing land management continues to increase. The privatization of land not only mobilized the enthusiasm of Tajikistan farmers to produce, but also made agricultural production and the market better integrated.